This will pave the way to ultimate adoption of all-IPV schedule in future considering the inevitable cessation of OPV from immunization schedules owing to its safety issues (VAPP and cVDPVs). This policy is in accordance with the recent decision taken by GPEI where phased removal of Sabin viruses, beginning with highest-risk (type 2) would be undertaken.40 This will result in elimination of VDPV type 2 in ‘parallel’ with eradication of last wild polioviruses by switching from tOPV to bOPV for routine EPI and campaigns. This switch will result in much early introduction of IPV than anticipated, at least in high-risk
areas for VDPVs, to provide type 2 protection.40 Why changes in polio immunization schedule became inevitable? • India is polio free for >1 year!! There is considerable evidence to show that sequential LBH589 mouse schedules that provide IPV first, followed by OPV, can prevent VAPP while maintaining the critical benefits conferred by OPV (i.e. high levels of gut immunity). Data from several studies show that sequential schedules considerably decrease the risk of VAPP.41, 42, 43 and 44 There is moderate level of scientific evidence that sequential immunization schedules starting
with two or more doses of IPV and followed by two or more doses of OPV PF-02341066 in vitro (at an interval of 4–8 weeks) induce protective immunological responses to all three poliovirus serotypes in ≥90% of vaccinees.45 However, the committee has retained the birth dose of OPV as recommended earlier. Providing the first OPV dose at a time when the infant is still protected by maternally-derived antibodies may, at least theoretically, also prevent VAPP. A birth dose of OPV is considered necessary in countries where the risk of poliovirus transmission is high.46 The committee recommends birth dose of OPV, three primary doses of IPV
at 6, 10 and 14 weeks, followed by two doses of OPV at Edoxaban 6 and 9 months, another dose (booster) of IPV at 15–18 months and OPV at 5 years. Alternatively, two doses of IPV can be used for primary series at 8 and 16 weeks, though this schedule is immunologically superior to EPI schedule and the number of IPV doses is reduced, but will be more cumbersome due to extra visits and incompatibility with combination formulations. Further, the child would be susceptible to WPV infection for the first two months of life considering the epidemiology of WPV in India till quite recently. Since IPV administered to infants in EPI schedule (i.e. 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks) results in suboptimal seroconversion,46 hence, a supplementary dose of IPV is recommended at 15–18 months. IPV should be given intramuscularly (preferably) or subcutaneously and may be offered as a component of fixed combinations of vaccines.