We compared 183 clinical and environmental isolates of Cng from o

We compared 183 clinical and environmental isolates of Cng from one such region, Thailand, Southeast Asia, against a global MLST database of 77 Cng isolates. Population genetic analyses showed that Thailand isolates from 11 provinces were highly homogenous, consisting of the same genetic background (globally known as VNI) and exhibiting only ten nearly identical sequence types (STs), with three (STs 44, 45 and Emricasan chemical structure 46) dominating our sample. This population contains significantly less diversity when compared against the global population of Cng, specifically Africa. Genetic diversity in Cng was significantly subdivided at the continental level with nearly

half (47%) of the global STs unique to a genetically diverse and recombining population in Botswana. These patterns of diversity, when combined with evidence from haplotypic networks and coalescent analyses of global populations, are highly suggestive of an expansion of the Cng VNI clade out of Africa, leading to a limited number of genotypes Blebbistatin founding the Asian populations. Divergence time testing estimates the time to the most common ancestor between the African and Asian populations to be 6,920 years ago (95% HPD 122.96 – 27,177.76).Further high-density sampling of global Cng STs is now necessary to resolve

the temporal sequence underlying the global emergence of this human pathogen.”
“Object. Despite its diagnostic utility, head CT scanning imparts risks of radiation exposure. Children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus selleck chemical exhibit increased risks of radiation toxicity due to the higher vulnerability of developing, immature tissues and frequent scanning. Several methods have been used to achieve dose reduction, including modifications of CT scanner tube current and potential. This retrospective study explores the use of a newly defined limited sequence of axial head CT slices to evaluate children with shunted hydrocephalus and decrease radiation exposure from diagnostic CT scans.\n\nMethods.

Consistent sequences of 7 axial slices were extracted from previously performed standard head CT scans in children with shunted hydrocephalus. Chronologically distinct limited sequences of each patient were blindly, retrospectively reviewed by 2 pediatric neuroradiologists and 1 pediatric neurosurgeon. Limited-sequence CT evaluation focused on the adequacy of portraying the ventricular system, changes in ventricular size, and visualization of the proximal catheter. Reviewers assessed all original full series head CT scans at least 4 months later for comparison. Adequacy and accuracy of the limited-sequence CT compared with the gold standard head CT was investigated using descriptive statistics.

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