18% reduction) to Caco-2 cells when added before the enteric path

18% reduction) to Caco-2 cells when added before the enteric pathogen, but had no effect when added 3 h after the addition of the EPEC strain (Fig. 4). In contrast to the study by Michail & Abernathy (2002), where coincubation of the L. plantarum 299v with the EPEC strain did not result in any statistically significant reduction in EPEC adherence, when the L. plantarum DSM 2648 was added simultaneously with the EPEC in this study, EPEC adherence to the Caco-2 cells was reduced by 65.5% (3 h) and 55.9% (6 h), respectively (Fig. 4). This study showed that L. plantarum DSM 2648 has a number of characteristics desirable for a probiotic selected specifically for its ability Selleckchem PD98059 to enhance intestinal barrier

function. These data warrant further investigation to determine whether the promising in vitro results correspond with in vivo efficacy and to understand the mechanism by which it exerts the positive effects on Caco-2 cells alone and a reduction Gefitinib ic50 in the deleterious effects of EPEC during coincubation. The ability of L.

plantarum DSM 2648 to survive passage through the gastrointestinal system could be investigated by monitoring viability in the faeces of humans consuming the bacterium. If proven to be effective, L. plantarum DSM 2648 could be used as a probiotic to benefit humans with a range of conditions as well as for general well-being. This work was funded by the AgResearch PreSeed Fund (contract #118). R.C.A. was supported by a Foundation of Research, Science and Technology Postdoctoral Fellowship (AGRX0602). The authors acknowledge the contributions of Kate Broadley, Michelle Kirk and Kelly Armstrong (cell culture), Diana Pacheco (16S rRNA gene sequencing), Rechelle Perry (tolerance assays), Caroline Thum (adherence assays) and Jason Peters and Steven Trask (TEER assays). “
“Topoisomerases are an important class of enzymes for regulating the DNA transaction processes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of Protein tyrosine phosphatase the most formidable pathogens also posing serious challenges for therapeutic interventions. The organism contains

only one type IA topoisomerase (Rv3646c), offering an opportunity to test its potential as a candidate drug target. To validate the essentiality of M. tuberculosis topoisomerase I (TopoIMt) for bacterial growth and survival, we have generated a conditionally regulated strain of topoI in Mtb. The conditional knockdown mutant exhibited delayed growth on agar plate. In liquid culture, the growth was drastically impaired when TopoI expression was suppressed. Additionally, novobiocin and isoniazid showed enhanced inhibitory potential against the conditional mutant. Analysis of the nucleoid revealed its altered architecture upon TopoI depletion. These studies establish the essentiality of TopoI for the M. tuberculosis growth and open up new avenues for targeting the enzyme.

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