, 2010) HopF2 has also been demonstrated to suppress the HR-indu

, 2010). HopF2 has also been demonstrated to suppress the HR-inducing activity of HopA1 in Arabidopsis Ws-0 and N. tabacum cv. Xanthi and also the HR induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens expressing AvrRpm1 in Arabidopsis (Jamir et al., 2004; Guo et al., 2009). Previous studies showed that HopF1 can interfere with the avrβ1-trigerred immunity in bean cultivar Tendergreen (Tsiamis et al., 2000). Here we found that silencing of PvRIN4a in Tendergreen greatly impaired the avrβ1-induced HR and strongly promoted multiplication of strain RW60 (Fig. 5), suggesting

that PvRIN4a is possibly an avirulence target of avrβ1. As HopF1 interacts with PvRIN4a, HopF1 might inhibit the avrβ1-trigerred resistance through targeting PvRIN4a. The mechanisms underlying the interaction between this website HopF1 and avrβ1 require further investigation. Lenvatinib purchase Overall, our results showed that HopF1 can suppress flg22-induced PTI responses in common bean. HopF1 was confirmed

to target both RIN4 othologs of bean, PvRIN4a and PvRIN4b, based on both in vitro and in vivo data, but both PvRIN4a and PvRIN4b are not the virulence targets of HopF1 for PTI inhibition. Furthermore, we also found that PvRIN4a was required for avrβ1-triggered HR, suggesting that HopF1 possibly suppressed avirulence function of avrβ1 by acting on PvRIN4a. We are grateful to John W. Mansfield for providing strains of Psp race 6 1448A, Psp race 7 1449B RW60, pPP511 construct, and seeds of common bean. We also thank Chunquan Zhang for

providing pGG7R2-V vector. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (30900047 and 51078224). “
“HIC6 is a group-3 late embryogenesis abundant protein found in Chlorella vulgaris. In the Antarctic strain NJ-7 of this unicellular green alga, it is encoded by a tandem array of five hiC6 genes (designated as NJ7hiC6-1, -2, -3, -4 and -5); in the temperate strain UTEX259, it is encoded by four hiC6 genes in tandem (designated as 259hiC6-1, -2, -3 and -4). Except for NJ7hiC6-3 and -4, the encoding regions of all other hiC6 genes differ from each other by 2–19 bp in each strain. Based on RT-PCR and Inositol monophosphatase 1 sequencing of total hiC6 cDNA clones, the relative transcript abundance of each hiC6 gene was evaluated. NJ7hiC6-2 and 259hiC6-2 were not expressed or expressed at low levels, whereas 259hiC6-1 and NJ7hiC6-3/4 exhibited the highest hiC6 transcript levels in the respective strains. In vitro assays showed that different isoforms of HIC6 provided almost identical cryoprotection of lactate dehydrogenase. Our studies suggest that the formation of the tandem arrays of hiC6 in Chlorella is a process of gene duplications accompanied by gene expression divergence. Chlorella vulgaris is a unicellular green alga often used as the eukaryotic model in studies of stress responses. Using C. vulgaris strain C-27, acquisition of freezing tolerance by cold-hardening has been extensively studied (Hatano et al., 1976; Honjoh et al., 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001; Machida et al.

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