The authors concluded that the meta-analysis suggests that combined ACEi + ARB reduces 24 h proteinuria to a greater extent than ACEi alone and that this benefit is associated with small effects on GFR. However, analysis also concludes that the available studies were heterogeneous and mostly of short duration
(only one study greater than 12 weeks) and the few longer term studies have not demonstrated a benefit. Hamilton et al.78 conducted a meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the efficacy of ACEi in the treatment of nephropathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Specifically the meta-analysis addressed the reduction in albuminuria or proteinuria and thus included only those studies that provided either geometric or arithmetic means of albuminuria. Studies reporting geometric means and arithmetic means were analysed learn more separately. The results of the Crizotinib clinical trial meta-analysis indicated that treatment with ACEi produced significant reductions in albuminuria in people with type 2 diabetes in studies where geometric
means were used to normalize data but less clear where data is reported as arithmetic means (presumed to reflect the skewing of the albuminuria data). While studies were stratified on the basis of the degree of albuminuria and study duration, no distinction between normotensive or hypertensive patients have been made. Studies with ARB’s in people with type 2 diabetes and overt kidney disease have shown that angiotensin receptor blockade with irbesartan attenuates the rate of doubling of serum creatinine by 20–30% over 2.7 years Pregnenolone when compared with placebo or amlodipine, used in equihypotensive doses.19 A study of angiotensin receptor blockade with irbesartan in hypertensive, microalbuminuric people with type 2 diabetes showed a 70% decrease in AER over 2 years.72 However, preservation of GFR over and above the effects of BP lowering was not demonstrated in this relatively short-term study. The ADVANCE study is a multinational randomized control trial undertaken
by 215 centres across 20 countries which, in addition to intensive blood glucose treatment, included a BP treatment study arm.67 Participants were randomized to either fixed combined perindopril indapamide or placebo. Additional antihypertensive agents were allowed for both groups as required with the exception that thiazide diuretics were not allowed and the only open labelled ACEi allowed was perindopril to a maximum dose of 4 mg a day thereby ensuring that the active treatment group did not exceed the maximum recommended dose. The active treatment resulted in a mean reduction after 4.3 years (median) in SBP and DBP of 5.6 and 2.2 mm Hg, respectively, compared with placebo. The relative risk of a major microvascular event was 7.9% in the active treatment group compared with 8.6% in the placebo group, however, this was not significant.