The transporters analyzed in this study are known to be regulated

The transporters analyzed in this study are known to be regulated by selleck screening library different mechanisms, involving various transcription factors such as Ppar-α, Pxr, constitutive androstane receptor (Car), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Fxr, and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (Hnf-1α). Li and Klaassen (2004) showed that HNF1α levels are critical for constitutive expression of Slco1b2 in mouse liver [54]. Also Slc22a6 and Slc22a7 expression in mouse kidneys is downregulated by targeted disruption HNF1α [55]. Significantly reduced expression of Slco1a1

in liver, along with Slc22a7 in kidney in db/db mice suggests that HNF1α levels or binding is decreased in these mice. Similarly, Abcc3 and Abcc4 efflux transporter expression is regulated in part by Nrf2-keap1 pathway in liver [24]. The present study clearly demonstrates that Abcc2-4 were upregulated in livers of db/db mice, which suggests activation of the Nrf2 and/or selleck chemicals constitutive androstane Thiazovivin in vivo pathways in these mice. Increased mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its target gene Gclc indicate that Nrf2-keap1 pathway is likely activated in db/db mice. The Nrf2-keap1 pathway is activated during periods of oxidative stress [56]. Also as reviewed by Rolo and Palmeira, diabetes is typically accompanied by increased production of free radicals, present findings suggests that oxidative stress may be present in diabetic liver

[57]. Together, the data presented argue for additional future studies to better define nuclear receptor pathways that are upregulated in leptin/leptin receptor deficient models, which will aid in better

understanding receptor-mediated mechanisms, which could regulate transporter expression in steatosis and T2DM. As reviewed by Klaassen and Slitt [38], Car and Pxr are also known for regulating Adenosine triphosphate Abcc2, 3, 5, 6 and Abcc2, 3 respectively. The observed increase in Abcc2, 3, 5, and 6 expression could be attributed to the observed increased in Car expression and activity, as shown in Figure 7. Similar to the liver, transporter expression is markedly altered in kidneys of db/db mice. Maher and colleagues showed that targeted disruption in Hnf1α significantly downregulated Slc22a6, 7 and 8 and Slco1a1 mRNA in mice kidneys [55]. This indicates that db/db mice might have differential expression or binding of Hnf1α. Also, these mice have severe hyperglycemia. During normal course, almost all of the glucose is absorbed from the nephrons during urine formation. But due to overwhelming amounts of glucose in glomerular filtrate, kidneys are unable to absorb it and thus excrete glucose in urine. This hyperglycemic urine may cause some alterations in transporter expression in kidneys. Conclusions Data illustrated in the present study illustrate a comprehensive, panoramic view of how a severe diabetes phenotype affects liver and kidney transporter expression in mice.

Although current IPD rates are lower than

those observed

Although current IPD rates are lower than

those observed in the pre-vaccine period, recent reports have shown an increase in IPD caused by non-vaccine serotypes in the USA [10]. In Spain, since the introduction of PCV7, IPD rates due to PCV7 serotypes Doramapimod have decreased in both children and adults, but this improvement has been counterbalanced by an increase in IPD due to non-PCV7 serotypes [11, 12]. Currently, two new conjugated vaccines are under development – 10-valent and the 13-valent vaccines, which both contain some emerging serotypes [13]. Alternative vaccines are also being evaluated, such as those based on pneumococcal virulence proteins. Many pneumococcal proteins have been investigated as vaccine candidates, for instance, pneumolysin, PsaA, PspC, and PspA [13, 14]. The pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is an important virulence factor which interferes with complement deposition on the pneumococcal surface [15] and is detected in almost all pneumococci [16–18]. It is highly immunogenic and protective and has proved to be highly cross-reactive both in various animal models [15, 19, 20] and in humans [21]. It is hypothesized that a PspA-based vaccine could protect against invasive disease and also eliminate the carrier state [15–22]. PspA is constituted

by five all domains: a signal peptide, GDC 973 a α-helical charged domain which includes a clade-defining region, a proline-rich region, a choline-binding domain and a C-terminal domain [16]. Although the PspA encoding gene (pspA) is highly genetically variable, the

classification by families is based on nucleotide and amino acid identity. Each of the three PspA families is subdivided into different clades: family 1 is composed by two clades (clade 1 and 2), family 2 comprises three clades (clades 3, 4 and 5), and PspA family 3 has only one divergent clade (clade 6) [16]. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of the PspA clades among a pneumococcal collection representative of major clones found in two previous studies among healthy children carriers [23] and patients with invasive disease [11]. Methods Bacterial strains One hundred and twelve pneumococcal strains previously characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction enzyme, as described elsewhere [24] and serotyped by Quellung reaction [25], were selected as follows: a) Forty-nine pneumococci isolated from CFTRinh-172 price adults with IPD in Barcelona (NorthEast of Spain) between 1997 and 2007 (Additional file 1). These 49 strains were representative of the 32 major genotypes found among 968 pneumococci causing IPD in adult patients in Barcelona [11].

Enteritidis Next we were interested to what extent the different

36 3.79 ± 0.02 ΔSPI4 4.83 ± 1.42 5.60 ± 1.36 2.97 ± 1.75 ΔSPI5 3.52 ± 1.79 4.29 ± 2.32 2.90 ± 1.40 SPI1o 0.33 ± 0.47* 0.33 ± 0.47* 2.20 ± 1.59 SPI2o 5.29 ± 0.87 5.82 ± 1.07 3.76 ± 0.77 SPI3o 0.00 ± 0.00* 0.00 ± 0.00* 0.33 ± 0.47* SPI4o 0.00 ± 0.00* 0.00 ± 0.00* 1.68 ± 2.38 SPI5o 0.00 ± 0.00* 0.00 ± 0.00* 1.07 ± 1.51* ΔSPI1-5 0.00 ± 0.00* 0.00 ± 0.00* 1.06 ± 1.50* * T-test different at P < 0.01 from the mice infected with the wild type S. Enteritidis Next we were interested to what extent the different virulence of individual SPI mutants would be reflected in host immune responses. Since the cell-mediated

immune response is important for the protection against S. enterica and lymphocytes play an important role in the co-ordination of the host’s immune response, we first characterised changes in lymphocyte subpopulations after the infection with the wild type strain and all the SPI mutants. When 3 mice from each group

were Momelotinib molecular weight sacrificed on day 5 post infection i.e. before the onset of fatalities, no differences in the distribution of splenic B-lymphocytes, CD3 T-lymphocytes and γδ T-lymphocytes were observed. Of the Th lymphocytes, the only statistically significant change was the Go6983 purchase decrease in number of CD4 lymphocytes observed after the infection with the SPI2o mutant when compared with the non-infected mice. CD4 lymphocytes also decreased in number after the infection with the ΔSPI1 mutant, i.e. another mutant in which, similarly to the SPI2o mutant, SPI-1 was absent while SPI-2 was present, although in selleck compound this case the decrease did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0634, see also Table 2). However, we did not investigate this further because we found another lymphocyte subpopulation which exhibited a more pronounced changes which also correlated with the severity of the infection (see below). Table 2 Two-colour flow cytometry of splenic CD3 and Monoiodotyrosine CD19 T- and B-lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes, and γδ T-lymphocytes in mice infected with S. Enteritidis 5 days post-infection.   CD3+19- CD19+3- CD19-3- CD4+8+ CD4+8- CD4-8+ γδT wt 52.5 ± 0.76 41.8 ± 2.07 5.4 ± 1.33* 1.4 ± 0.33 31.1 ± 2.93 14.8 ± 0.28

0.93 ± 0.09 ΔSPI1 57.1 ± 6.50 39.6 ± 5.80 3.2 ± 0.98* 0.9 ± 0.10 24.5 ± 6.26& 16.2 ± 2.05 0.50 ± 0.08 ΔSPI2 50.3 ± 3.77 41.8 ± 2.91 7.7 ± 0.98 1.1 ± 0.13 27.4 ± 1.80 14.5 ± 0.35 0.80 ± 0.22 ΔSPI3 55.1 ± 3.26 40.9 ± 4.37 3.9 ± 1.59* 1.4 ± 0.33 27.1 ± 4.63 16.4 ± 1.19 0.53 ± 0.05 ΔSPI4 56.5 ± 4.24 39.5 ± 3.61 4.1 ± 1.42* 1.3 ± 0.46 26.8 ± 2.80 16.2 ± 1.05 0.67 ± 0.24 ΔSPI5 60.1 ± 5.22 35.8 ± 4.05 3.9 ± 1.25* 1.1 ± 0.21 33.8 ± 1.01 14.9 ± 1.33 0.57 ± 0.05 ΔSPI1-5 55.5 ± 3.07 36.4 ± 2.86 8.0 ± 1.79 2.1 ± 0.41 34.6 ± 3.01 17.2 ± 0.26 0.70 ± 0.08 SPI1 only 55.6 ± 3.78 37.4 ± 2.54 7.1 ± 1.75 0.9 ± 0.26 35.0 ± 3.44 16.1 ± 0.70 0.97 ± 0.05 SPI2 only 43.0 ± 2.50 49.0 ± 6.63 3.8 ± 2.02* 0.6 ± 0.25 23.8 ± 5.80* 14.4 ± 1.16 0.80 ± 0.22 SPI3 only 62.7 ± 4.28 29.9 ± 4.46 7.5 ± 0.49 1.4 ± 0.05 29.2 ± 2.92 18.6 ± 0.87 0.80 ± 0.16 SPI4 only 64.2 ± 4.33 28.

Hydrobiologica 478:73–106CrossRef Guo LB, Gifford RM (2002) Soil

Hydrobiologica 478:73–106CrossRef Guo LB, Gifford RM (2002) Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Glob Change Biol 8:345–360CrossRef Härdtle W, Redecker B, Assmann T, Meyer H (2006) Vegetation responses to environmental AZD0530 mouse conditions in floodplain grasslands: prerequisites for preserving plant species diversity. Basic

Appl Ecol 7:280–Tanespimycin ic50 288CrossRef Henle K, Lindenmayer DB, Margules CR, Saunders DA, Wissel C (2004) Species survival in fragmented landscapes: where are we now? Biodivers Conserv 13:1–8CrossRef Henle K, Alard D, Clitherow J, Cobb P, Firbank L, Kull T, McCracken D, Moritz RFA, Niemelä J, Rebane M, Wascher D, Watt A, Young J (2008) Identifying and managing the conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity conservation in Europe—a review. Agric Ecosyst Environ 124:60–71CrossRef Hodgson JG, Grime JP, Wilson PJ, Thompson K, Band SR (2005) The impacts of agricultural change (1963–2003) on the grassland flora of Central

England: processes and prospects. Basic Appl Ecol 6:107–118CrossRef Hundt R (1958) Die Wiesenvegetation der Nutheniederung bei Nedlitz, Grimme und Polenzko. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg 7:159–190 Hundt R (1969) Wiesenvegetation, Wasserverhältnisse und Ertragsverhältnisse im Rückhaltebecken bei Kelbra an der Helme. Mitteilungen des Institutes für Wasserwirtschaft 30:3–99 Hundt R (2001) Ökologisch-geobotanische Untersuchungen an mitteldeutschen Wiesengesellschaften why unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihres Wasserhaushaltes und ihrer Veränderungen durch die Intensivbewirtschaftung im Rahmen der Großflächenproduktion. TPX-0005 research buy Wehry, Untermaßfeld Ihse M (1995) Swedish agricultural landscapes—patterns and changes

during the last 50 years, studied by aerial photos. Landsc Urban Plan 31:21–37CrossRef Jaeger JAG (2000) Landscape division, splitting index, and effective mesh size: new measures of landscape fragmentation. Landsc Ecol 15:115–130CrossRef Jannsens F, Peeters A, Tallowin JRB, Bakker JP, Bekker RM, Filliat F, Oomes MJM (1998) Relationship between soil chemical factors and grassland diversity. Plant Soil 202:69–78CrossRef Jansen F, Zerbe S, Succow M (2009) Changes in landscape naturalness derived from a historical land register—a case study from NE Germany. Landsc Ecol 24:185–198CrossRef Jeanneret P, Schüpbach B, Luka H (2003) Quantifying the impact of landscape and habitat features on biodiversity in cultivated landscapes. Agric Ecosyst Environ 98:311–320CrossRef Jensen K (1998) Species composition of soil seed bank and seed rain of abandoned wet meadows and their relation to aboveground vegetation. Flora 193:345–359 Joyce CB, Wade PM (1998) European wet grasslands. Biodiversity, management and restoration. Wiley, Chichester Kienast F (1993) Analysis of historic landscape patterns with a geographical information system—a methodological outline.

The dimensions of these lymph nodes are consistent with those fou

The dimensions of these lymph nodes are consistent with those found in the literature, where the maximum diameter reported is 1-2 cm [12]. However, in contrast to other studies, we report a relatively high percentage of lymph nodes (9.86%) with a maximum diameter that exceeds 2 cm. These findings could indicate that lymph nodes that are large yet mainly fatty may be difficult to evaluate, especially using low frequency probes. This is because only the peripheral hypoechoic cortex

has an adequate US contrast with the surrounding this website subcutaneous fatty tissue, and if this cortex is very thin, then detecting the lymph node can be very difficult. By contrast, lymph nodes that are smaller yet with a less fatty hilus would be theoretically easier to detect. The mean thickness of the cortex in our study is consistent with the results of other studies [5, 9, 13] and basically consistent with anatomical data. However, based on the above hypothesis, it is possible that

a thinner cortex would render the identification of such lymph nodes difficult, which would affect the percentage of lymph nodes with these characteristics. A frequently observed anomaly (11.29% of the lymph nodes) was the extroflexion of the lymph node, which can be easily explained by AZD8931 chemical structure physiological phenomena. In particular, the lymphatic vessels are afferent to the peripheral cortex, and the lymph, following filtration, exits from the hilus vessels. Thus it can be reasonably concluded that any response to “irritants”, whether inflammatory or neoplastic, would induce lymphocyte proliferation, which would be initially local, only later extending to within the lymph node. The irregularity of the outline, due to a local thickening of the cortex, appears to be related to an initial mild or moderate reaction to the irritating-inflammatory stimulus; it could also be the manifestation of a local outcome of past similar

phenomenon. Bay 11-7085 We hypothesize that this alteration – frequently observed in non-neoplastic conditions – is reactive and non-specific; we can thus conclude that a higher number of extroflexions are unrelated to metastases, in that the malignant cells reach the lymph node from only a single or very few afferent lymphatic vessels, especially if the neoplasm is small. This hypothesis contradicts the findings of an selleck kinase inhibitor another study, conducted at the axillary level, in which mono-lobulated and multi lobulated contours led to an increased relative risk of metastases (Odds Ratios of 2.1 and 3.8, respectively) [14]. Nonetheless, it is possible that in the previous studies [10, 14] the focal thickening of the cortex was much greater than that in our study.

Standard curves for molecular beacon-based real-time PCR detectio

Standard curves for molecular beacon-based real-time PCR detection of targets invA, fliC and prot6E. The plots illustrate the relationship of known number of target DNA selleck inhibitor copies per reaction to the threshold cycle of detection (CT) for each Epigenetics inhibitor molecular beacon reaction. The CT is directly proportional to the log of the input copy equivalents, as

demonstrated by the standard curves generated. Detection of S. enterica alleles in bacterial samples by molecular beacon-based uniplex real-time PCR The molecular beacon-based real-time PCR assay designed in this study was tested on environmental and food samples of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (Table 1), as well as several commercially available bacterial strains (Table 2) and various Salmonella serovars obtained from a reference laboratory for Salmonella (Table 3). All samples were investigated first by uniplex assays to detect invA, prot6E and fliC (Table 4). In the reaction for detection of invA, all 44 Salmonella samples were positive and all 18 non-Salmonella samples were undetectable. Positive results (≤ 10 copies of DNA per reaction) had CT values ranging from 15 to 25. In the prot6E reaction, all 21 S. Enteritidis samples gave positive PCR results and all 41 non-Enteritidis samples were negative. Positive samples for the prot6E gene had CT values ranging between 15 and 18 with one exception, the commercially available specimen of S. Enteritidis (Table 3) for which fluorescence

detection significantly increased around cycle 30. DNA Synthesis inhibitor Finally, in the fliC reaction, all 17 S. Typhimurium samples gave positive PCR results and all 45 non-Typhimurium samples were negative. Positive results had CT values ranging from 15 to 18 cycles. These results showed that the primers and beacons for each reaction work well individually and that they amplify and detect their target sequence with very high specifiCity and sensitivity. The CT values exhibited by the samples in these experiments, compared to the plot of the standards of known concentration, indicated that the extracted DNA from the bacterial samples was higher than the range of concentrations tested by the standards (>107 copies per reaction). Therefore 100-fold dilutions of all extracted DNA samples were prepared for use in the two-step duplex assay, so that the resulting CT values would fall within the range seen on the standard curves.

The difference in bone volume between the mice of two genotypes b

The difference in bone volume between the mice of two genotypes becomes more prominent at 52 weeks [27] Total body BMD [26] PTHR1 Femoral neck BMD [28–31] No abnormal bone-related phenotypes were reported in PTHR1-deficient mice Eiken syndrome [32] Blomstrand chondrodysplasia [32, 33] CRTAP Osteogenesis imperfecta [34–37] Shortening of long bone segments (particularly the proximal segment of the limb), decreased bone volume/tissue volume ratio, decreased trabecular thickness, decreased trabecular number,

increased trabecular separation, reduced bone formation rate due to a reduction in the mineral apposition rate, and decreased mineralization lag time [35] TDGF1 Ranked first in the prediction of osteoporosis candidate genes within the JQ-EZ-05 3p14-25 Lenvatinib mouse [38] No abnormal bone-related phenotypes were reported in TDGF1-deficient mice Materials and methods Subjects This study included 1,080 southern Chinese female subjects selected from an expanding database of the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study. Participants were ambulatory subjects recruited at road shows and health talks on osteoporosis since 1998. Women with a history of diseases known to affect bone mass including vitamin D deficiency, hypercalcaemia, primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism, hyper- and hypothyroidism, metabolic and congenital

bone diseases, and use of medications IWR-1 cell line that would affect bone metabolism were excluded. A detailed description of subject ascertainment, inclusion, and exclusion criteria has been described previously [4]. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic

QDR 4500 plus, Waltham, MA, USA). The in vivo precision of the machine for lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip region was 1.2%, 1.5%, and 1.5%, respectively. Subjects with extreme BMD Z-scores at either lumbar spine L1–4 or femoral neck were included in the current study. Subjects with BMD Z-score ≤ −1.28 (lowest tenth percentile of the population) were defined as cases, while those with BMD Z-score ≥ +1 (highest 15th percentile of the population) were defined as controls. All participants gave informed consent, and the study was approved by the Ethics Demeclocycline Committee of the University of Hong Kong and conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki. There were 457 cases and 254 controls for lumbar spine, 399 cases and 283 controls for femoral neck, and 356 cases and 260 controls for total hip. The Student’s t test was applied to compare the characteristics and phenotypes of the cases and controls. Age, height, and weight are potential confounding factors influencing BMD variation. According to our previous heritability estimates for BMD, the proportion of variation explained by age, age2, height, and weight was around 0.3 in women [4].

At this time point the signal moved both above and below the 3 33

At this time point the signal moved both above and below the 3.33 cycle breakpoint at several dilutions of drug, and a MIC SAHA HDAC solubility dmso was unable to be determined. These results provide evidence that ETGA can be used to generate a reliable MIC for AST Temsirolimus solubility dmso analysis by as much as 16 hours sooner than traditional AST methods, and functions in a similar fashion to molecular

AST analysis using gsPCR assays. Molecular AST MIC determination of bacteria from positive blood cultures Beuving and colleagues [19, 20] have demonstrated that molecular AST can be performed on bacteria harvested directly from positive blood cultures by collecting the microbes from the culture using a SST. Such a method could produce a reliable MIC for a series

of antibiotics against a pathogenic microbe without the need for its isolation, thereby further reducing the time required to obtain a reliable result. The same methodology was applied to the following ETGA experiments. Blood cultures were spiked with MSSA, MRSA, or E. coli, allowed to be called positive in a BACTEC 9050 incubator, the bacteria were harvested with an SST, and molecular AST was performed as previously described in the materials and methods. The results and comparison of the molecular analyses to the macrobroth dilution selleck chemical method are shown in Table 1 and Additional file 1: Table S2. Analysis was carried out as before using both molecular methods at the four and six hour incubation time points. ETGA analysis produced MIC values that were mostly in agreement with the macrobroth method and correlated with the CLSI interpretation. However, one discrepancy (Table 1, footnote b) was observed at the four hour time point of the MRSA versus vancomycin series. While the MIC was determined to be less than 0.25 μg/mL, the 16 μg/mL culture, produced a signal with a Ct value greater than 3.33 cycles above the baseline. This isolated result was neither supported by the results from the other cultures in the series, its paired gsPCR reactions,

nor the results from the six hour time point. The result is most likely indicative of an operator error. Such a result can occur when performing standard AST dilution methods. CLSI and similar AST protocols provide guidelines for interpreting such results Paclitaxel and repeating the testing, if necessary [6, 7]. The gsPCR analysis produced similar results to the ETGA analysis (Table 1) with two important discrepancies that require attention. The first is MRSA versus oxacillin at the six hour time point (Table 1, superscript c). Using the gsPCR method, the MIC was called at 2 μg/mL. Based on CLSI interpretation, this MIC value represents a susceptible phenotype. The expected phenotype, however, is resistant, and this is verified by the macrobroth method, the ETGA method at four and six hours, and the gsPCR method at 4 hours.

[20] To accomplish these goals, it is often necessary to use mult

[20] To accomplish these goals, it is often necessary to use multiple drug therapies.[2–6] ACE inhibitors and ARBs are drugs with proven cardioprotective, renoprotective, and cerebroprotective properties.[21] However, certain populations, like

African-Americans, are resistant to drugs that block the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system [RAAS], like ACE inhibitors and ARBs given as monotherapy,[22,23] because these drugs exert their major antiPS-341 ic50 hypertensive effects through the blockade of 3-MA order RAAS, and Black patients are usually low-renin and volume-dependent hypertensive subjects.[24] Several clinical trials have shown that the combination of ACE inhibitors with CCBs increases their Go6983 datasheet hypotensive potency[11–17,25]

because of a synergistic effect of inhibition of RAAS and a direct arterial dilatory effect, which is independent of RAAS inhibition. Most of the previous publications have used lower-dose ACE inhibitor–CCB combinations and did not specifically focus on the antihypertensive effects of these drug combinations on Black hypertensive patients compared with their White counterparts. In this report, we present our findings on low-dose amlodipine/benazepril 10/20 mg/day and high-dose amlodipine/benazepril 10/40 mg/day combination regimens for the treatment of Black and White hypertensive patients. Our results showed that the low-dose amlodipine/benazepril

combination resulted in significantly greater BP reductions and higher BP control and responder rates in White compared with Black click here hypertensive patients. In contrast, the high-dose amlodipine/benazepril combination eliminated this racial difference and resulted in similar reductions in BP control and responder rates. Other investigators have also reported that Black hypertensive patients treated with higher doses of ACE inhibitors show a greater BP response, compared with lower doses.[22,26–28] Combinations of CCBs and ACE inhibitors or ARBs have complimentary mechanisms of action that provide augmented efficacy, with reductions not only in BP but also in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.[29] The combination of amlodipine with perindopril in ASCOT (the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial) resulted in significant reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in high-risk hypertensive patients compared with an atenolol–diuretic combination, for similar reductions in BP.[30] Also, in the ACCOMPLISH (Avoiding Cardiovascular Events through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension) study,[31] patients treated with a combination of benazepril with amlodipine had a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than patients treated with a combination of benazepril with hydrochlorothiazide.

2006) Given the major roles of ants and termites in ecosystem fu

2006). Given the major roles of ants and termites in ecosystem function it is likely that functioning and PHA-848125 in vivo resilience of both rain forest and oil palm plantation ecosystems will be affected by the abundance and composition of ant and termite assemblages (Naeem et al. 1994, Bihn et al. 2010). Previous studies have shown that both ant and termite diversity usually decrease following habitat conversion (Jones et al. 2003; Brühl and Eltz 2009). Logging of old growth forest reduces the total number of termite species

by 64 % (14 species cf. 39 species; Donovan et al. 2007), although it is not known how many termite species persist when forest is cleared for oil palm plantation. Ant species richness is also reduced by logging, although to a lesser extent, with 31 % of species being lost (Brühl 2001). Conversion to oil palm plantation has a more extreme effect, with ant species richness Bortezomib being reduced by 64-80 % (Brühl and Eltz 2009; Fayle et al. 2010). Termites and ants also show shifts in assemblage structure with habitat disturbance. Soil feeding termites are vulnerable to loss of old growth forest, although wood feeders may have more species in mature regenerating

forest (Eggleton et al. 1997). Invasive and generalist species dominate ant assemblages in oil palm plantation (Brühl et al. 2003; Fayle et al. 2010). We know of no studies that have either, (a) sampled ants and termites Dynein simultaneously across a forest disturbance gradient or, (b) Epigenetics inhibitor considered termite community composition in oil palm plantation. Here we assess the co-variation in functional and feeding group composition of ants and termites along a habitat disturbance gradient comprising sites in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation converted from logged forest, in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods Study site All sampling was conducted in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, at an average of 450 m asl. Survey

habitats were: old growth lowland dipterocarp rain forest (OG) in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area (4°49′N, 116°54′E); twice-logged rain forest (LF); and oil palm plantation (OP) managed by Benta Wawasan (a subsidiary company of the state government body, Yayasan Sabah) (4°43′N, 117°35′E). Old growth forest survey points at Maliau were in forest that has never been logged commercially, although half of the survey points were in forest that has been lightly logged once. Stand basal area in this lightly-logged area remains similar to undisturbed sites (Hamzah Tangki, unpublished data) and substantially different from the commercially logged forest (Ewers et al. 2011). Tree communities were deemed not to have changed significantly (Ewers et al. 2011). Logged forest survey points were in forest that has been selectively logged twice: once during the 1970s and again from the late 1990s-2000s.