Additionally, mRNA expression levels of pattern recognition receptors and immunomodulatory cytokines in the jejunum were investigated. T-cell receptor-γδ+ T cells were found to be increased in the gut mucosa 4 days after infection PD0325901 supplier and were most likely
involved in the primary local immune response. Five to eleven days later, cytotoxic T cells peaked in this location, which was preceded by an expansion of this lymphocyte population in the mesenteric lymph nodes. In intestines of infected piglets, mRNA expressions of TLR-2, NOD2 and TNF-α were significantly upregulated, suggesting an involvement in parasite recognition, immune response and possibly also in immunopathology. Taken together, this study identifies cellular and molecular players involved in the early immune responses against C. suis, but their precise role in the pathogenesis and control of this neonatal disease requires further investigation. “
“The immunological hallmark of Omenn syndrome (OS) is the expansion and activation of
an oligoclonal population of autoreactive T cells. These cells should be controlled rapidly by immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporin A (CsA), to avoid tissue infiltration and to improve the general outcome of the patients. Here we studied the clinical and the immune response to CsA in two Omenn patients and also examined the gene expression profile associated with good clinical response to such therapy. T cell receptor diversity was studied in cells obtained from OS patients buy BMS-354825 during CsA therapy. Characterization of gene expression in these cells was carried out by using the TaqMan low-density array. One patient showed complete resolution of his symptoms after CsA therapy. The other patient showed selective response of his oligoclonal T cell population and combination therapy was required to control his symptoms.
Transcriptional profile associated with good clinical response to CsA therapy revealed significant changes in 26·6% of the tested genes when compared with the transcriptional profile of the cells before treatment. Different clinical response to CsA in two OS patients is correlated with their immunological Etofibrate response. Varying clonal expansions in OS patients can cause autoimmune features and can respond differently to immunosuppressive therapy; therefore, additional treatment is sometimes indicated. CsA for OS patients causes regulation of genes that are involved closely with self-tolerance and autoimmunity. Omenn syndrome (OS) is an autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) characterized by generalized scaly exudative erythrodermia, enlarged lymph nodes, hepatosplenomegaly, severe susceptibility to infections, activation of T helper type 2 lymphocytes, eosinophilia and hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig)E .