At this writing, the remaining patients are clinically stable and

At this writing, the remaining patients are clinically stable and being followed without surgery. The authors believe that CPA is not a rare anomaly. If careful echocardiographic examination is performed, CPA will be diagnosed more frequently. Although selleck chemicals llc this pathology usually is associated with genetic syndromes and other cardiac abnormalities, patients with CPA generally are asymptomatic.”
“Acromegaly is debilitating disease occasionally refractory to surgical and medical treatment.

Stereotactic radiosurgery, and in particular Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), has proven to be an effective noninvasive adjunct to traditional treatments, leading to disease remission in a substantial proportion of patients. Such remission holds the promise of eliminating the need for expensive medications, along selleck products with side effects, as well as sparing patients the damaging sequelae of uncontrolled acromegaly. Numerous studies of radiosurgical treatments for acromegaly have been carried out. These illustrate an overall remission rate over 40%. Morbidity from radiosurgery is infrequent but can include cranial nerve palsies and hypopituitarism. Overall, stereotactic radiosurgery is a promising therapy for patients with acromegaly and deserves further study to refine

its role in the treatment of affected patients.”
“Inflammation may be an important contributing factor to the progression of Eisenmenger syndrome (ES). Markers of systemic inflammation in ES have not been systematically studied. Inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, Stem Cell Compound Library cell line and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were measured in 42 consecutive ES patients (mean age, 24.3 +/- A 10.6 years) compared with their levels in 22 healthy control subjects. The patients were followed up for a mean duration of

16.3 +/- A 13.7 months. The levels of inflammatory markers were correlated with clinical and hemodynamic variables at baseline and the outcomes of death, hospitalization, and worsening World Health Organization (WHO) functional class at follow-up evaluation. Compared with the control subjects, ES patients showed a significant elevation in hs-CRP (2.99 +/- A 3.5 vs 1.1 +/- A 0.9 mg/dl; p = 0.002) and IFN-gamma (41.3 +/- A 43.6 vs 10.4 +/- A 6.9 pg/ml; p < 0.001) levels. The levels of IL-2 and IL-6 also were elevated but did not differ significantly from those in the control subjects. The patients with hs-CRP levels higher than 3 mg/dl were significantly older (28.9 +/- A 10.6 vs 21.5 +/- A 9.8 years) and had a significantly shorter 6-min walk distance (421.5 +/- A 133.2 vs 493.3 +/- A 74.8 m). The levels of inflammatory markers did not correlate with baseline parameters or clinical outcomes. To conclude, the levels of hs-CRP and IFN-gamma are significantly elevated in ES. Elevated hs-CRP in ES was associated with older age and shorter 6-min walk distance, but the levels of inflammatory markers were not predictive of clinical events.

Co-expressing a dominant-interfering form

of PI3K abolish

Co-expressing a dominant-interfering form

of PI3K abolished V12RAS-induced malignancy, demonstrating a direct role for PI3K signalling in the malignant progression of melanoma in vivo, and highlighting PI3K as a promising target for melanoma therapy.”
“Alemtuzumab is a novel anti-CD-52 monoclonal antibody for immunosuppression. Although cost effective and efficacious, alemtuzumab is not without risk. Interestingly, intraoperative complications caused by alemtuzumab have rarely been reported. We describe a case of intraoperative pulmonary edema following administration of alemtuzumab. A 22-year-old man underwent kidney transplantation and received alemtuzumab intraoperatively. LY294002 datasheet To provide better surgical exposure for transplantation, the operation table was tilted to the right. At the end of 3.5-h uneventful DMH1 procedure, a sudden oxygen desaturation was noted after

the bed was flattened. The postoperative chest X-ray showed opacification of the entire left lung field. After 4 days of bi-level positive airway pressure treatment, the lung field was cleared. This case is unique in that pulmonary edema developed during surgery after administration of alemtuzumab, and that the edema developed only in the nondependent lung. Transplant anesthesiologists should be aware of the risk of this complication with these novel anti-CD-52 monoclonal antibodies.”
“The surface roughness on different length scales of In2O3(001) films is detrimental to potential semiconductor applications of this material. One Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor type of surface roughness consists of square shaped islands

with edge lengths on the micron scale. This islanding was observed in In2O3(001) films grown on Y-stabilized ZrO2(001), YSZ(001), by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under oxygen-rich and under In-rich growth conditions. Our reflection high-energy electron diffraction observations during the initial phase of the growth showed that the islanding is caused by a nucleation of the In2O3 with incomplete wetting of the substrate and not by a strain-induced breakup of the film. By systematic variation in the growth parameters Indium-to-oxygen beam flux ratio (VI/III ratio) and substrate temperature we found that the wetting of YSZ(001) by the In2O3(001) film is thermodynamically not preferred and that kinetic limitations, such as low substrate temperatures or (to a lesser extent) high VI/III ratios, were able to force nucleation of continuous films. A growth diagram was constructed that shows the parameter regions with forced or inhibited wetting. The nucleation with inhibited wetting can be applied to the formation of square shaped In2O3(001) islands whose size increases and areal density decreases with decreasing VI/III ratio.

The kinetic models based on Ozawa’s and Mo’s methods were used to

The kinetic models based on Ozawa’s and Mo’s methods were used to analyze the nonisothermal crystallization behaviors. It was found that the latter succeeded in describing the nonisothermal crystallization behavior of the PP containing UHMWPE, while the former was not appropriate. The activation energy for the nonisothermal crystallization determined by Kissinger’s method also indicated that the crystallization ability of PP was improved with the addition of UHMWPE. Owing to the modification of the crystallization kinetics of the PP materials by introduction of UHMWPE, the foaming properties

(i.e., cell uniformity and expandability AZ 628 etc.) were improved significantly. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 1275-1286, 2011″
“Objective. BUBR1 is one of the key components of the spindle assembly checkpoint ( SAC) machinery and is activated in response to kinetochore tension. Defects in the SAC contribute to an increased rate of aneuploidization during tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of BUBR1 protein for human oral squamous cell carcinogenesis.

Study design. A total of 120 samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 43) and

5 types of potentially malignant disorders (PMDs: oral epithelial dysplasia, n = PF00299804 11; hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia, n = 20; lichen planus, n = 16; submucous fibrosis, n = 19; and verrucous hyperplasia, n = 11) of human oral mucosa (1991-2001) from our institution were retrieved and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Normal oral mucosa ( n = 9) and fibrous hyperplasia ( n = 9) from patients without the aforementioned oral habits were also included in the study.

Results. BUBR1

staining was detected at the basal and suprabasal layers in 75 (97.4%) of 77 samples of PMD and 43 (100%) of 43 samples of SCC of oral mucosa but was absent in all samples of normal oral mucosa ( n = 9) and fibrous hyperplasia ( n = 9). BUBR1 expression of various types of PMD and SCC of oral mucosa was significantly overexpressed as compared respectively with normal mucosa ( P < .001) and fibrous hyperplasia ( P < .001). Moreover, the expression of oral SCC was significantly higher as compared respectively with the 5 types of oral PMD; on the other hand, BUBR1 expression of verrucous hyperplasia was significantly GSK461364 Cell Cycle inhibitor higher than that of the other 4 types of PMD of oral mucosa ( P < .001).

Conclusion. Our results may interpret that BUBR1 protein is suggested to be one of the contributing factors involved in the pathogenesis of oral SCC. These also hypothesize that BUBR1 protein is a putative biomarker for human oral squamous cell carcinogenesis. ( Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 257-267)”
“We demonstrate that the electron injection barrier (Delta(e)) between Co and C-60 can be tuned by inserting a thin Alq(3) interlayer.

avium In the phylogenetic tree, the M avium clinical isolates w

avium. In the phylogenetic tree, the M. avium clinical isolates were divided into three major clusters: A, B and C. Cluster A was observed most frequently (64/102, 63%), whereas cluster C was found in a minor proportion of the isolates (8/102, 8%). However, there was no association between the clinical characteristics, disease progression and drug

susceptibility and the phylogenctic tree based on VNTR genotyping.

CONCLUSIONS: MATR-VNTR genotyping may be useful for epidemiological studies of M. avium lung disease; however, no association was found between the specific VNTR genotypes of M. avium and the clinical characteristics of Korean patients.”
“BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum is a cause of tuberculosis (TB) that has mainly been described in Africa, but immigration and travel patterns have contributed to the spread of the disease to other countries.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed TB cases due to M. LDC000067 africanum during 2000-2010 in seven Spanish

hospitals. Selected clinical charts were reviewed using a predefined protocol that included demographical, clinical and microbiological data and outcome.

RESULTS: Although 57 cases were diagnosed, only 36 clinical charts were available for review: 82.8% were men and the mean age was 31.6 years (range 12-81). Forty-four cases were from Africa, I from the Philippines, 1 from India, and 4 from Spain, while the country of origin was unknown in 7 cases. The most frequent site of infection was the lung (58.3%). Four cases (6.9%) were resistant A-1210477 molecular weight to at least one first-line anti-tuberculosis drug.

CONCLUSIONS: Disease due to M. africanum in industrialised countries is mainly associated with immigration from endemic areas, although some cases also occur among native-born populations.”
“BACKGROUND: The presence of

restrictive lung disease has classically required the measure of total lung capacity to document ‘true’ restriction, which has limited its detection in large population-based studies.

METHODS: We used spirometric data to classify people with restricted spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity >= 0.70 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) in the Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) Study and determined the relation between this finding and demographic factors and the presence of chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

RESULTS: Overall, we found that 11.7% of men (546/4664) and 16.4% of women (836/5098) had restricted spirometry. Prevalence varied widely by site, from a low of 4.2% among males in Sydney, Australia, to a high of 48.7% among females in Manila, The Philippines. Compared to people with normal lung function, those with restricted spirometry had a higher prevalence of diabetes (12.2% vs. 4.6%), heart disease (15.0% vs. 7.7%) and hypertension (38.8% vs. 22.8%).

CONCLUSIONS: Restricted spirometry is a common finding in population studies.

Future longitudinal studies are recommended to clarify the effect

Future longitudinal studies are recommended to clarify the effect of schizotypy on the clinical course of OCD.”

Hyperleukocytosis (a white cell count in peripheral blood > 100 x 109 l-1) is a well-recognized medical emergency. Rates of morbidity associated with anesthesia in hyperleukocytotic patients

have not been previously described. This retrospective study describes the perioperative morbidity and mortality of children who present acutely with hyperleukocytosis.


All patients under 17 years of age with leukemia complicated by hyperleukocytosis and who received general anesthesia as part of their acute care at the Children’s Hospital in Westmead from July 1999 to Pim inhibitor June 2008 were included. Data describing perioperative adverse events within 48 h of anesthesia were collected using a systematic chart review.


Over the 8- year period, 60 children were admitted with hyperleukocytosis related to a new diagnosis of leukemia. Fifty-two APR-246 clinical trial children had general anesthesia within 48 h of their admission. Eleven children required two separate general anesthetics within this same time frame. Two deaths were recorded within 48 h of anesthesia; one child died from neurological complications of her disease, and the second died from multi-organ failure. Three children had serious respiratory adverse events requiring postanesthesia intensive care. Thirteen children had notable but less serious

adverse events. These were typically respiratory in nature and required supplemental oxygen for more than 2 h after anesthesia.


Children with leukemia-related hyperleukocytosis often require general anesthesia at the time of presentation and are at significant perioperative risk. Respiratory adverse events are very common and mandate close postanesthesia care.”
“Background: Borg developed scales for rating pain and perceived PLX4032 supplier exertion in adults

that have also been used in pediatric populations. Models describing functional relationships between perceived exertion and work capacity have not been studied in children. We compared different models and their fits to individual trajectories and assessed the variability in these trajectories.

Methods: Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected from 79 children. Progressive cycle ergonometric testing was performed to maximal work capacity with test duration ranging from 6- 12 minutes. Ratings were obtained during each 1-minute increment. Work was normalized to individual maximal work capacity (Wmax). A delay was defined as the fraction of Wmax at which point an increase in ratings of leg fatigue occurred. Such a delay term allows the characterization of trajectories for children whose ratings were initially constant with increasing work. Two models were considered, a delay model and a power model that is commonly used to analyze Borg ratings. Individual model fit was assessed with root mean squared error (RMSE).

Deconvolution of the transients

Deconvolution of the transients BTSA1 nmr for the dichlorinated monomers showed IN3D(ct) and PN3D(dif) contributions (where IN3D(ct) refers to an instantaneous nucleation and three-dimensional growth mechanism under charge-transfer control and PN3D(dif) refers to a progressive nucleation and three-dimensional growth mechanism under diffusion control), whereas IN2D and PN3(dif) components and IN2D, IN3D(ct), and PN3(dif) components (where IN2D refers to an instantaneous nucleation and two-dimensional growth mechanism) were needed for 2,5-dibromoaniline and 2,6-dibromoaniline, respectively. The percentage of the contribution of the current-time transient to the total charge was worked out for each monomer. The effect of the

scan rate on the voltammetric profile during the potentiodynamic electrosynthesis of the polymers was studied too. Curves of the current versus the square root of the potential scan rate were recorded for a selected group of monomers, and the slope was considered an estimation of the diffusion coefficient of the respective monomer. Furthermore, the electrosynthesized polymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Microanalysis, used to establish the ratio of the atomic percentages of P and N for each JQEZ5 in vitro polymer synthesized at a constant potential,

was performed for doped and undoped polymers. This parameter was a measure of the degree of electrochemical doping.

Quisinostat The conductivity of the doped and undoped polymers was also measured. Hence, the systematic characterization of this analogue series of monomers allows, before generalization, an adequate experimental design to prepare polymers with the properties required for their use. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 107-115, 2010″
“The extrapyramidal side effect parameters of typical and atypical antypsychotics were correlated with affinity chromatographic data determined on the melanin-based column. The chromatographic study was performed according to the hypothesis that extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) as side effects of the use of antipsychotic drugs at clinically effective doses are correlated to the affinity of these drugs to neuromelanin. For that aim the polymerization product of L-DOPA (melanin) was immobilized onto aminopropyl silica and the binding efficiency of melanin towards antipsychotics has been determined. The results indicate that melanin based-column can be used to evaluate the risk of EPS of drug candidates to antipsychotic drug therapy.”
“Time- and space-resolved optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging were used for the investigation of the plasma dynamics of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges. 200 mu s pulses with a 50 Hz repetition frequency were applied to a Cr target in Ar, N(2), and N(2)/Ar mixtures and in a pressure range from 0.7 to 2.66 Pa. The power density peaked at 2.2-6 kW cm(-2).

“Remifentanil, a mu-opioid receptor agonist, has important

“Remifentanil, a mu-opioid receptor agonist, has important characteristics for neuroanesthesia, but data about its effects on postoperative recovery and mortality are currently lacking.

Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in 2007, NSC726630 we selected patients who underwent elective brain tumor resection with open craniotomy under general anesthesia using either remifentanil or fentanyl and divided them into two categories: remifentanil patients and non-remifentanil patients. After propensity score matching for potential confounders, we compared the in-hospital mortality and postoperative length of stay (LOS) between the two groups. For

comparison, the same endpoints were evaluated for patients underwent rectal cancer surgery under general anesthesia with intraoperative epidural anesthesia.

In patients who underwent brain tumor resection (936 pairs), remifentanil patients had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (1.5 % vs. 3.0 %; P = 0.029). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio for use of remifentanil for in-hospital mortality was 0.47 (95

% confidence interval, 0.25-0.91; P = 0.025). Remifentanil patients also showed earlier discharge from hospital (median LOS, 17 vs. 19 days; hazard ratio, 1.19, 95 % confidence interval, 1.08-1.30; P < 0.001). In contrast, in 2,756 pairs of patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery, no significant difference was seen in either in-hospital morality (1.2 % vs.

1.3 %; P = 0.518) or median LOS (19 vs. 19 days; P = 0.148) between the two groups.

Our data CAL-101 research buy suggest a possible association between use of remifentanil and better early postoperative recovery for patients undergoing neurosurgery with craniotomy. Further studies, including a randomized controlled trial, are required to confirm the present results.”
“Aim: Mild therapeutic hypothermia is beneficial in patients successfully resuscitated from non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The effect of fast induction of hypothermia in these patients remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal veno-venous blood cooling in humans successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest.

Methods: We performed an interventional study in patients after successful resuscitation CA3 in vitro from cardiac arrest admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary care centre. The extracorporeal veno-venous circulation was established via a percutaneously introduced double lumen dialysis catheter in the femoral vein, and a tubing circuit and heat exchanger. A paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass roller pump and a heater-cooler system were used to circulate the blood. Main outcome measures were feasibility, efficacy, and safety.

Results: We included eight consecutive cardiac arrest patients with a median oesophageal temperature of 35.9 degrees C (interquartile range 34.9-37.0).

Furthermore, after an episode of AMR had resolved, the recurrence

Furthermore, after an episode of AMR had resolved, the recurrence rate at 3, 6 and 12 months was 44%, 50.1% and 56.2%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AMR is higher in the first year post-transplant and the likelihood of resolution is less on follow-up EMB, especially when more severe. A small but significant number of cases became worse or did not change. These new findings may be helpful in planning PF-04929113 mw future studies that test whether therapeutic interventions on asymptomatic AMR favorably impact outcomes.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:46-51 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed in 2010 will result in dramatic expansion of publically funded health AR-13324 concentration insurance coverage for low-income individuals. It is estimated that of the 32 million newly insured, 16 million will obtain coverage through expansion of the Medicaid Program, and the remaining 16 million will purchase coverage through their employer or newly legislated insurance exchanges. While the Act contains numerous provisions

to improve access to private insurance as discussed in Part I of this analysis, public sector coverage will significantly be affected. The cost of health care reform will be borne disproportionately by Medicare, which faces nearly $500 billion in cuts to be identified by a new independent board. Transplant centers should be concerned about the impact of the reform on the financial aspects of transplantation. In addition, this selleckchem legislation also utilizes the Medicare Program to drive reform of the health care delivery system, by encouraging the development of integrated Accountable Care Organizations, experimentation with new ‘models’ of health care delivery, and expanded support for Comparative Effectiveness Research. Transplant providers, including transplant centers and physicians/surgeons

need to lead this movement, drawing on our experience providing comprehensive multidisciplinary care under global budgets with publically reported outcomes.”
“In this study, we have made an attempt to address how the nanoparticle flows may affect the hydrodynamic instability around a miscible front. In order to explore the role of nanoparticles in such flows, a linear stability analysis was performed to examine the impact of nanoparticle addition for an already unstable miscible displacement. The growth rates of the temporal modes of the instability are determined for different profiles or physical properties of nanoparticles. The results reveal that the diffusion of either the carrier fluids or nanoparticles initially has destabilizing effects, but demonstrates stabilizing effects at longer times, as the cutoff spectrum is initially shifted to larger wavenumbers, but shifted back later.

029, a =0 05) per mI of jetted alginate Based on a biphasic chol

029, a =0.05) per mI of jetted alginate. Based on a biphasic cholesterol degradation

model, at an initial bacterial cell density of N-low =4.53 Chi 10(8) /ml, for an initial cholesterol concentration of 3 mg/ml, the percentage mass of metabolite degraded is 37.0% +/- 0.42%, 57.8% +/- 0.04% and 65.1% +/- 0.01% for the free, atomized and inkjet immobilized bacteria, respectively.”
“Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium [Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)] has received considerable attention over broad applications due to its remarkably high sensitivity and extremely wide dynamic range.

This review presents the state of ECL quenching BI2536 of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+). After a brief introduction of the ECL of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), we discuss in detail ECL-quenching co-reactants, the ECL-quenching mechanism and applications of ECL quenching coupled with capillary electrophoresis and flow-injection analysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

To identify effective strategies for marketing pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services to patients in a self-insured employer setting.

Design: Qualitative study.

Setting: University of Pittsburgh during March through May 2008.

Participants: 26 university employees taking at least one chronic medication.

Intervention: Three VX-689 datasheet focus group sessions were conducted using a semistructured topic guide to facilitate the discussion.

Main outcome measures: Employees’ perceived medication-related needs, perceived benefits of pharmacist-provided MTM, potential barriers for employee participation in MTM, and effective strategies for marketing MTM.

Results: Participants reported concerns with timing of doses, medication costs, access, and ensuring adherence. Participants generally felt positively toward pharmacists; however, the level of reported patient Compound C contact with pharmacists varied among participants. Some participants

questioned pharmacists’ education and qualifications for this enhanced role in patient care. Perceived benefits of MTM noted by participants included the opportunity to obtain personalized information about their medications and the potential for improved communication among their health providers. Barriers to patient participation were out-of-pocket costs and lack of time for MTM visits. Participants suggested use of alternative words to describe MTM and marketing approaches that involve personal contact.

Conclusion: Pharmacists should emphasize parts of MTM that patients feel are most beneficial (i.e., provision of a personal medication record) and use patient-friendly language to describe MTM when marketing their practice. Patients will need greater exposure to the concept of MTM and the pharmacists’ role in order to correctly describe and assign value to this type of pharmacist patient care practice.

The here presented combination of a fluorescent blue and a phosph

The here presented combination of a fluorescent blue and a phosphorescent red emitter simultaneously allows for a strong blue emission and efficient triplet transfer to the phosphor. The spectrum is extended in the green and yellow region by a full phosphorescent unit stacked on top of the triplet harvesting device. This superposition of four different emitters results in color coordinates close to illuminant A and a color rendering index of 80. Furthermore, color stability is given with respect to varying driving conditions and estimations of the electrical and optical

efficiencies are provided. (C) 2010 American Institute ZD1839 mouse of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3516481]“
“Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy induces deleterious effects on the skeleton in kidney transplantation but studies of GC discontinuation in this population are limited. This study evaluated changes in areal bone mineral density (BMD) with GC withdrawal. Subjects were enrolled one yr after renal transplantation and randomized to continue or stop prednisone; all subjects continued cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at enrollment and repeated at one yr and values were standardized. Mean +/- standard deviation of annualized change in standardized BMD between GC withdrawal vs. continuation group at the lumbar spine was +4.7% +/- 5.5 vs. +0.9% +/- 5.3 (p = 0.0014); total hip +2.4%

+/- 4.2 vs. -0.4% +/- 4.2 (p = 0.013), and femoral neck +2.1% +/- 4.6 vs. +1.0% +/- 6.0 (p = 0.37). There was no confounding by prednisone dose prior to enrollment, change in creatinine clearance,

weight, or use of bone-active medications this website following study entry. Multivariate analysis determined that the change in BMD was positively associated with baseline alkaline phosphatase and creatinine clearance and negatively associated with Alvespimycin order baseline BMD. BMD improves with GC withdrawal after renal transplantation, and this gain in BMD is dependent on the baseline bone turnover, renal function, and BMD.”
“Bacterial adhesion is the initial step in colonization and biofilm formation. Biofilms can, on the one hand, be detrimental to both human life and industrial processes, for example, causing infection, pathogen contamination, and slime formation, while on the other hand, be beneficial in environmental technologies and bioprocesses. For control and utilization of bacterial adhesion and biofilms, adhesion mechanisms must be elucidated. Conventional physicochemical approaches based on Lifshitz-van der Waals, electrostatic and acid-base interactions provide important models of bacterial adhesion but have a limited capacity to provide a complete understanding of the complex adhesion process of real bacterial cells. In conventional approaches, bacterial cells, whose surfaces are structurally and chemically heterogeneous, are often described from the viewpoint of their overall cellular properties.